Racial and ethnic back grounds, gender, sexual preferences, health, age, religion and class-based differences are the major factors that cause discrimination in the forms of pay gap, career attainment, unemployment rate, occupational and job segregation.

The reason to speak of “managing diversity” is the need to make these differences among people into an asset rather than a liability for the organization. By managing diversity, companies have much to gain competitive advantage, diverse customer pool, increased creativity and innovation, improved corporate image, greater organizational effectiveness and high profitability.

Women own only 1 per cent of the world’s wealth, earn only a 10 percent share of global income, occupy just 14 per cent of leadership positions in the private and public sector, while women produce half of the world’s food, they own a mere 1 per cent of its land.

Providing diversity in supply chains- when a company actively promotes and develops the inclusion of minority and women-owned businesses in their procurement processes– has become a top entrepreneurial phenomenon in the last decade.

The proposed Sustainable Development Goal 17, which reads “Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development”, recognizes multi-stakeholder partnerships as important vehicles for mobilizing and sharing knowledge, expertise, technologies and financial resources to support the achievement of the sustainable development goals in all countries, particularly developing countries.

17 Sustainable Development Goals and 169 targets seek to build on the Millennium Development Goals and complete what they did not achieve.

Gender Equality means that the rights, responsibilities and opportunities of individuals will not depend on whether they are born male or female. In other words, promotion of gender equality does not mean that women and men will become the same.

The same opportunities regarding to required agricultural raw materials and vehicles are given to the women farmers in Kenya as men farmers, the amount of agricultural products could increase by more than 20 per cent.

If reducing time that required for to spend household cares, women coffee and banana growers in Tanzania increase household cash incomes by 10 %, labour productivity by 15% and capital productivity by 44%.

Women own only 1 per cent of the world’s wealth, earn only a 10 percent share of global income, own a mere 1 per cent of its land, occupy just 14 per cent of leadership positions in the private and public sector, although they produce half of the world’s food

Collective action of women’s rights groups, political parties, trade unions, state-sponsored mass organizations and civil society groups have a direct hand in shaping advocating policies, designing interventions and implementing programs and thus strengthening the situation of women in the economy in the form of employment and/or entrepreneurship.

As being the leader of women activists Olympe de Gouges had lost her life in guillotine with her words defending “If  women are sent to guillotine when they commit a crime as being citizens; then women should have the right to do politics and to go up to the rostrum as being citizens.”

In January 1992, 19 Numbered Advisory Jurisdiction given in the 11th session of UN Status of Women Committee was as follows: “Gender based violence is a form of discrimination of which damages the freedom of women and the rights of women based on equality of women and men.”

The Istanbul convention aims at prevention of violence, victim protection and “to end with the impunity of perpetrators”.

Globally, seven in 10 women experience physical and/or sexual violence at some point in their lives, and three out of 10 at the hands of an intimate partner.

In Chile, a study found that women’s loss of salary as a result of domestic violence cost US $1.56 billion or more than 2 percent of the country’s Gross Domestic Product.

In the United States, the cost of violence against women by an intimate partner exceeds $5.8 billion per year and nearly $4.1 billion of which is for direct medical and mental health care services.

In Canada, annual costs have been estimated at 684 million Canadian dollars for the criminal justice system, 187 million for police and 294 million for the cost of counseling and training, totaling more than 1 billion a year.

Men who witnessed violence against their mothers growing up are approximately 2.5 times likelier to commit violence against a female partner.

Men who fail to provide for their family’s financial needs, may try to exert power over women and children in frustration, or to prove their manhood.

At times, oil-dependent governments have announced economic reforms when the commodity price has been depressed, but when prices recover; implementation is de-prioritized or halted, keeping meaningful socioeconomic development an illusion.

Due to the fundamental transformation in conventional geopolitical equation, globalization and cultural imperialism, many new practical issues arose out of the international context of business. And so, commerce has become more complicated and dynamic while organizations realized they needed more guidance to ensure their dealings supported the common good and did not harm others.

Companies are looking to their core business, as well as philanthropy, advocacy and partnerships, to support society in ways that also contribute to profitability.

Many corporations have redefined their core values in the light of business ethical considerations (e.g BP’s “beyond petroleum” environmental tilt).

By implementing the principles of corporate sustainability especially in business operations and supply chain management, it would be possible to provide a common ground for partners, a moral code for employees, an accountability measure for critics.

Wal-Mart has redirected more than 64 percent of the waste generated by stores and Sam’s Club facilities. In 2009 alone, they recycled more than 1.3 million pounds of aluminium, 120 million pounds of plastics, 11.6 million pounds of mixed paper and 4.6 billion pounds of cardboard. Annually, they expect to save around $20 million and prevent 38 million pounds of waste being sent to landfills.

Sustainable business practices can increase revenue, reduce energy expenses, reduce waste expenses, reduce materials and water expenses, increase employee productivity, reduce hiring and attrition expenses, attract talent, reduce strategic and operational risks and generate tax breaks.

Without access to convenient water and affordable fuels for cooking cleaning and heating, women have to spend large amounts of time to obtain traditional fuels from forests and water from taps or possibly polluted wells, rivers or spring.

An average water use ranges from 200-300 litres a person a day in most countries in Europe to less than 10 litres in countries such as Mozambique.

In underdeveloped countries, researches shows that 443 million school days are lost each year to water-related illness.

People living in the slums of Jakarta, Manila and Nairobi pay 5 to 10 times more for water than those living in high-income areas in those same cities and more than consumers in London or New York.

There is enough evidence to show that integrating a gender-sensitive approach to development policies can have a positive impact on the effectiveness and sustainability of water interventions and on the conservation of water resources

At rural areas, women are being exposed open fire for to prepare food and heat for long hours. Due to the reason of direct interaction with gaseous, particulates, carbon monoxide, benzene and some poisonous chemical compounds, there are 1.6 million people died in every year.

Most women in the workforce in developing countries are engaged in agriculture and they produce between 60 percent and 80 percent of food crops in their countries.

The Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that if women farmers had the same access to resources as men, agricultural output in developing countries would increase by between 2.5 and 4.0 percent.

Green economy strategies will not be an engine of sustainable development without the full integration of the social pillar of sustainability in terms of pay equity and gender equality.

Green jobs at grassroots’ level enable people with different backgrounds and skills to build career paths and achieve economic self-sufficiency.